WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON U.S. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS?” 333

WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON U.S. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS?” 333

  

WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON U.S. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS?” 333

Methodology

The paper will use a qualitative method of analysis where data will be collected from open sources intelligence databases for evaluation. The information will be analyzed to ensure validity, and correct information has been generated. T-tests and confidence levels will be used in data evaluation and analysis. The paper summarizes the latest trends throughout the specific problem of the current impact of Covid 19 on counterinsurgency services.

Since the research deals with emerging phenomena at an increasingly high rate. The qualitative approach of updated open-source data can be analyzed in this research. In line with the guidelines of the international organization of police departments intelligence operatives as well as the national council Agency for Violence and Violence concerning the source assessment (basic level: no question as to credibility, truthfulness, honesty, professionalism, and background of full dependability). Assessment of relevant data (class 1: no doubt regarding precision), consistency of outlet (fully accurate), and authenticity of the information.

Throughout 2019 the European commission police departments Compliance Authority released a study called Do Terrorists Think of Electric Sheep? In which technology forms the landscape of violence and intelligence agencies, where the Department highlighted the disturbing need to improve the resources for knowledge analysis resulting from the enhanced danger of innovative and unique technology misuse.

The study included the wide field of so-called ‘economic crimes’ and contained the chapter on the emerging sources of misinformation and false news spread. The document from Europol correlated with the document from the National Assembly Planning for the Growing Environment that was created. The current misinformation on covid-19 by China, Russia, and Iran has put the intelligence gathering at crossroads which, made it hard for the nations to be effectively prepared for any occurrence of the infections.

Terrorists and other organized groups can use the same approach to launch their criminal activities in crime torn nations. While in Sections on Modern information technology and Evolving Trends digital technology – very specific issues, emphasizing that cyber-enabled crime will have a huge effect on the surveillance and security work environment.

Sources of Data

The study will employ information from open sources and closed outlets of information. OSC requires much of the surveillance data it gathers and processes accessible both to the security agencies the whole of the United States. Governance. In addition to making this “actual” data and information to their both-source peers. OSC investigators find new ideas or patterns from various sources and mark them for other users.

Throughout official communications from international governments and organizations, a skilled OSO is sensitive to shifts throughout the sound, word usage, and terminology. Comparisons to previous comments could provide information and insight regarding how foreign agents perceive an altercation or problem. The research can also assist in defining their red lines.

 The word open access explicitly applies to data that is presented for general use. If it requires any specialized skills, tools, or methodologies to obtain a bit of knowledge, it cannot possibly be described as open source. Relevantly, open data documentation is not restricted to whatever the substantial web sites can be used to locate. Web pages, as well as other sites that can be accessed utilizing Google, are huge repositories of open-source knowledge, but it’s far from being the main outlets.

Security experts use the open-source intellectual capacity to spot possible weak points within friendly channels so that the sites can be mitigated before threatening characters manipulate them. Weaknesses that are frequently found usually involve. Accidental leakage of confidential material, as via social networks. Open carriers or Internet-connected appliances that are unencrypted. The unencrypted operating system, for example, websites that run an outdated version of prevalent CMS brands. Assets released or subjected, including proprietary software. Among the most relevant points to consider open-source information is that sometimes it is utilized together with other subgroups of data.

Insights from shuttered publications, including institutional telemetry, shuttered dark web societies, and populations that share external intelligence, is frequently included infiltration system and authenticate open-source cognitive ability. Passive gathering often includes the use of advanced threat systems (TIPs) to integrate a wide range of danger continues to feed into one location, which is widely available.

While it is a huge step up from conventional surveillance data harvesting, there is still a substantial threat of conflicting information. More sophisticated approaches to threat awareness, such as Real digital information, address this issue by utilizing artificial intelligence, data science, and natural language analysis to simplify the priority process.

Hypothesis Testing

An alternate hypothesis delivers a set of information. Firstly, what assumptions have we made regarding the influence of the independent parameter(s) on the dependent parameter(s)? What’s the trajectory such an impact was anticipated for? Such that, it determines impact direction. It is a one-tailed proposition if the alternative explanation has asserted that the impact was anticipated to be negative. Conversely, a two-tailed hypothesis indicates researchers not choosing the position the research ‘s impact needs to take. Rather, it essentially means the effect can be correct or incorrect.

The critical value, also called alpha or α, can be defined as the likelihood that the null hypothesis will be rejected while it is accurate. For instance, a meaning level of 0.05 implies a 5 percent risk of concluding that while there is no inherent difference, persists.

To ascertain which declaration is better supported by the statistical analysis, a scientific theory experiment tested necessarily related statements regarding a population. A test outcome is statically significant whenever the test statistics are extreme enough compared to the null hypothesis, which for the overall population, one should reject the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is rejected and support the alternative theory if the scientific study indicates that the value amount is well less than the critical value we had set (e.g., either 0.05 or 0.01). Conversely, if the significant value is well above the critical point, the null premise is not accepted as well as the alternative explanation is not appropriate.

The null hypothesis for the study; what is the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on u.s. counterintelligence operations

Ho: Covid-19 Pandemic Has Major Implications On USA Counterintelligence Activities;

HA: Covid-19 Pandemic Doesn’t Have Any Implications On USA Counterintelligence Services.

IRB Consideration

The research requires IRB consideration since it requires data about security operations, which is considered to be highly confidential. The study will fall under a full review of the IRB. It would fall into the Full Category; however, we will not be conducting a full research study. 

Data Analysis

The research uses a qualitative approach to research, and data will be collected from open sources and closed sources. The research will use a t-test, confidence intervals, and Z-test to analyze the information collected. Qualitative data offer clear summary statistics and of the data gathered. Such descriptions could be either quantifiable, that is, statistical tests, or visual, that is, charts that are easy to understand.

Such descriptions could either form the foundation for the original suggestion of the information as a component of more comprehensive quantitative tests, or they could suffice for a specific operation or even of nature. The chi-square analyses test null premises claiming that perhaps the pattern of frequencies of given events found in a sample is compatible with a given distribution function. The occurrences deemed shall be mutually unique and also have an increasing likelihood.

An obvious form of such a test is where every other occurrence covers a consequence of a nominal variable. A fitness test tests if or not an observable frequency analysis varies from a normal distribution, as well as an independent evaluation, assesses if coupled findings on two parameters, represented in a correlation matrix, are autonomous of one another. A statistically relevant conclusion can be quite minimal, with adequate information.

If a confidence interval provides a p-value, which is less than or equivalent to the statistical threshold, the default position at that stage is dismissed. These findings are alluded to as’ statistically relevant (at the p = 0.05 stage, etc.). The lesser the degree of relevance selected, the greater the proof needed. Standardized coefficient selection is rather subjective, but a threshold of 5 percent for is conventionally required several applications.

Bibliography

Eldridge, Christopher, Christopher Hobbs, and Matthew Moran. “Fusing algorithms and analysts: open-source intelligence in the age of ‘Big Data.'” Intelligence and National Security 33, no. 3 (2018): 391-406.

Glassman, Michael, and Min Ju Kang. “Intelligence in the internet age: The emergence and evolution of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT).” Computers in Human Behavior 28, no. 2 (2012): 673-682.

Hobbs, Christopher, Matthew Moran, and Daniel Salisbury, eds. Open-source intelligence in the twenty-first century: new approaches and opportunities. Springer, 2014.

Patel, Swati, Vipin Naik, Rajkumar Bansal, Prakash Patel, and Neeta Sharma. “Usage of statistical methods and study designs in the publication of specialty of general medicine and its secular changes.” Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology 2, no. 3 (2016): 125-129.

Tang, Minh, Avanti Athreya, Daniel L. Sussman, Vince Lyzinski, and Carey E. Priebe. “A nonparametric two-sample hypothesis testing problem for random graphs.” Bernoulli, 23, no. 3 (2017): 1599-1630.


  
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